Alaska moose have experienced episodic declines, and shown mineral deficiencies in sub-populations, going back over 30 years. These declines have been marked by copper deficiencies and hoof deformities like are seen in WA elk, UT moose, and NE bighorn sheep. On the Kenai peninsula where many of these hoof deformities have been showing up over the decades, tree farms dot the landscape. The use of herbicides in forestry has increased over the last several decades. Across the Cook inlet in the matanuska-susitna valley, potato farmers have combated potato blight for 20 years with fungicides. The most commonly used fungicide for potato blight is Chlorothalonil. In a 1993 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture study of the Bering Sea. Chlorothalonil was found in every fog sample collected, and in several of the sea water samples collected. Elk, deer, and moose in WA have experienced copper deficiencies and hoof rot, in areas with higher rates of pesticide application.

Not all that far away on the same waters, Sitka black tailed deer have experienced high rates of cyrptorchidism (undescended testicles). Where it is believed an estrogenic agent is the cause of the cryptorchidism. Over 60% of pesticides would fit that description.

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