The National bison range refuge in Montana has been host to bighorn sheep, and bison with misaligned hemiscrota. Many ungulates including deer, elk, and bighorn sheep have also exhibited under bites at the refuge.

The National bison refuge sits in Lake County Montana. Lake County Weed Control handles some of the weed control in and around the bison refuge. The DOI Fish & Wildlife Service also contracts weed control for the refuge. Here is a call for bids to apply herbicides on 505 acres of the refuge mostly for the control of Spotted Knapweed, Sulfur Cinquefoil, and Whitetop. Lake County Weed control recommends 2,4-D, Metsulfuron-methyl, and Picloram for the control of these weeds. Picloram and 2,4-D have both been shown to cause testicular damage. Metasulfuron-methyl is a Sulfonyurea herbicide that works by the same mode of action as Sulfometuron Methyl and Imazapic. Sulfometuron Methyl has been used in locations with mule deer exhibiting testicular malformation such as the Hanford site in WA, and Metsulfuron-methyl has been used at Malhuer National wildlife Refuge in OR.

See: Sulfonylureas

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